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Pope Paul VI’s substantial achievement was to steer the Council to a closure albeit with some uncertainties, but eventually with a moral unanimity despite the small minority opposition.
He promulgated all its sixteen documents and closed the Council on 8 December 1965.
Every part of a building is subject to the effects of outside forces—gravity, wind, earthquakes, and temperature changes, to name a few.
Throughout history, people have constructed buildings that have withstood these forces over a long period of time, primarily using rules of thumb derived from their own experiences and those of their predecessors.
But a small minority – mainly in the Roman Curia – were opposed to the Council from its announcement 50 years ago (25 January 1959) and well beyond its conclusion in 1965.Today the individual responsible for ensuring that buildings will remain standing while carrying out their intended functions is the structural engineer.The Council of American Structural Engineers (CASE) defines a structural engineer as: "An engineer with specialized knowledge, training, and experience in the sciences and mathematics relating to analyzing and designing force-resisting systems for buildings and other structures." A structural engineer usually has one of two roles on a building project, as identified by CASE: Every project should have a single designated SER who establishes the structural design criteria and concepts for the project, but may delegate the detailed design of certain portions to SSEs by communicating this information and other requirements on the construction documents (drawings and specifications).There can be little doubt that Pope Paul was aware of residual opposition and felt it necessary to address the Roman Curia in uncompromising terms: Whatever were our opinions about the Council’s various doctrines before its conclusions were promulgated, today our adherence to the decisions of the Council must be whole hearted and without reserve; it must be willing and prepared to give them the service of our thought, action and conduct.The Council was something very new: not all were prepared to understand and accept it.
If high winds cause considerable lateral movement, unacceptable cracks may develop in exterior walls and interior partitions.