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Edom is characterized by 2 major geomorphologic units, the highland plateau and the lowlands that border Wadi Arabah.
Before our project, most IA excavations were carried out on the highland plateau, largely ignoring the copper ore-rich Edom lowlands.
Accordingly, the events ascribed to the early Israelite and Judean kings from the 10th–9th c. BCE editors of the HB who resided in postexilic times in Babylon and later in Jerusalem. When British archaeologists carried out the first controlled excavations in the highlands of Edom (southern Jordan) in the 1970s and 1980s (7), using relative ceramic dating methods, they assumed that the Iron Age (IA) in Edom did not start before the 7th c.
Some of the casualities of the scholarly debate between the traditional biblical scholarship and biblical minimalists has been the historicity of David and Solomon–the latter of which is traditionally cross-dated by biblical text (1 Kings ; ; and 2 Chronicles 12:2–9) and the military topographic list of the Egyptian Pharaoh Sheshonq I (Shishak in the HB) found at the Temple of Amun in Thebes and dated to the early 10th c. The power and prestige of Solomon as represented in the Bible has been most recently challenged on archaeological grounds by I. BCE, confirming the minimalist position concerning the HB and archaeology. Coinciding with the general “deconstruction” of Solomon as an historic figure, Glueck's identification of the Faynan mines as an important 10th c.
The new radiocarbon dates push back by 2 centuries the accepted IA chronology of Edom.
Data from Khirbat en-Nahas, and the nearby site of Rujm Hamra Ifdan, demonstrate the centrality of industrial-scale metal production during those centuries traditionally linked closely to political events in Edom's 10th century BCE neighbor ancient Israel.
In 2002, we excavated the fortress gatehouse (Area A), a building devoted to copper slag processing (Area S), and ≈1.2 m of the upper part of a slag mound (Area M) by using stratigraphic methods. These dates confirmed the radiocarbon dates published earlier by the GMM (17). BCE, the stratified excavations in the lowlands of Edom provided an objective dating technique that linked this metal production center with the period of the early Israelite kings and their neighbors mentioned in the HB. BCE portion of this Levantine chronology is known as the IA IIa, a highly contentious period, but especially important for historical archaeology because it is partially dated on the synchronism between biblical texts related to Solomon's successor and son, Rehoboam (1 Kings –26 and 2 Chron.
(1), asserting that he had discovered King Solomon's mines in the Faynan district (the northern part of biblical Edom), ≈50 km south of the Dead Sea in what is now southern Jordan.
The period between the First and Second World Wars has been called the “Golden Age” of biblical archaeology (2) when this subfield was characterized by an almost literal interpretation of the Old Testament (Hebrew Bible, HB) as historical fact.
On the basis of the dating of the Edom highland excavations, Glueck's excavations at Tell el-Kheleifeh (which he identified with Solomon's Red Sea port of Ezion Geber in south Edom) and most IA sites in this region were reinterpreted as belonging to the 7th c. BCE phenomenon were discarded and assumed to date to the 7th–8th c. The C dates associated with smelting debris layers from Faynan reported here demonstrate intensive 10th–9th c.
BCE industrial metallurgical activities conducted by complex societies.
The analytical approach advocated here argues for an historical biblical archaeology rooted in the application of science-based methods that enables subcentury dating and the control of the spatial context of data through digital recording tools.