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These proclamations all used a standard format, beginning with an exordium—"The worshipful and most esteemed gentlemen of the Eight of Ward and Security of the city of Florence make it known, notify, and expressly command, to whosoever, of whatever status, rank, quality and condition"—and continuing with a statement (narratio), a request made upon the listeners (petitio), and the penalty to be exacted from those who would not comply (peroratio).Under the Ottoman Empire, official messages were regularly distributed at mosques, by traveling holy men, and by secular criers.Julius Caesar regularly publicized his heroic deeds in Gaul, and upon becoming Emperor of Rome began publishing government announcements called Acta Diurna.
These can have ranged from smoke and fire signals to advanced systems using semaphore codes and telescopes. China, where reports gathered by officials were eventually compiled as the Spring and Autumn Annals. News is provided through many different media: word of mouth, printing, postal systems, broadcasting, electronic communication, and also on the testimony of observers and witnesses to events.It is also used as a platform to manufacture opinion for the population.Thus, political, religious, and commercial interests have historically controlled, expanded, and monitored communications channels by which news could spread.Postal services have long been closely entwined with the maintenance of political power in a large area.
Travelers on pilgrimages to Mecca traditionally stay at caravanserais, roadside inns, along the way, and these places have naturally served as hubs for gaining news of the world.