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and –19 touching on the chief offenses involved in the golden calf episode (other molten gods; an invented festival).In and 28 references to the two distinct series of covenant stipulations are juxtaposed.Yet nothing of the peculiar emphases of literary prophecy (e.g., concern for the rights of the weak) appears in the "ethical decalogue," while its own ethical injunctions are found not only in pre-prophetic Israelite literature, but in extra-biblical sources as well (see below). While there is no proof of Mosaic origin, there is no ideational or substantive objection to the Decalogue's originating in Moses' time.The interrelation of these two series of covenant stipulations is obscure; no less obscure is the relation of the Decalogue of Exodus 20 to the following law corpus (–23 (22–26); 21–23) – "all the words of and all the rules" that Moses relayed to the people and wrote down in the "book of the covenant" (24:3–4, 7). Criteria for dating even this shortened form of the Decalogue are wanting. the empty cherub throne over the ark), and the sanctity of the divine name are coeval with the beginnings of biblical religion. Literary influence of supposedly later Deuteronomic and priestly material has been found in the motive clauses; but even this is questionable in the light of the possibility that the influence may have run the other way.
applies to the entire recorded transmission of the Decalogue: "Words are like bodies, their meaning, like the soul; hence the custom of the wise… 4:8)), did it become the fit subject of a major commemorative festival. Not much is known of the mode of transmission of the Decalogue and its setting in life before it was incorporated into the narratives of the Torah. Others held that each tablet contained the entire Decalogue. 104a), explains it to mean that the letters were incised right through the stone, which resulted in the comment that the mem and samekh which were in the tablets stood there by a miracle since they were completely closed letters and normally should have fallen out (Shab. As, however, the Jerusalem Talmud points out this applies only to the ketav Ashuri (the Assyrian script) whereas, if the Torah was written in the ancient Hebrew script, this would apply to the ayin (, Meg. The first two commandments, which were stated in the first person, were heard directly from God by the people. The Decalogue was originally included in the daily Temple service (Tam. Outside the Temple, the people also wanted to include it in the daily service, but they were forbidden to do so in order to refute the contention of heretical sects (minim) that only the Ten Commandments were divinely given (Ber. The aggadic statement that all the 613 commandments were written on the tablets in the space between the Ten Commandments was probably also intended to dispel this view (Song R. The only emphasis given to it is that the congregation rises when it is read as part of the regular weekly portions (twice a year in the portions Yitro and Va-Etḥannan) and on the festival of Shavuot. von Rad, The Problem of the Hexateuch and Other Essays (1966), 13–26; G.
Critics have called the stipulations of Exodus 34 the "cultic decalogue," as distinguished from the traditional – or the "ethical" – decalogue, and regard it as the more ancient.
This relative dating rests in large measure on the supposition that the "ethical decalogue" reflects the teachings of the literary prophets. I have not committed adultery, etc." (Pritchard, Texts, 35).
The natural construction of the first sentence, however, subordinates it to the second (cf.
sequence comprising the human genome is occupied by one of these four nucleotide chemical letters.
Frightened by the thunder, the smoke, and the blaring horn, the people fall back and plead with Moses to be their intermediary; Moses reassures the people that God wants only to train them in the fear of Him, then approaches the cloud enshrouding God (–18 (18–21)).