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We encourage the use of public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help. Tabulated the principal species are: Exobasidium laccinii on Vacciniuttty Europe, Siberia, America. cordata grows on manure, presumably as a saprophyte. seldom saprophytically as I04 MYCOLOGY Basidiobolus on the feces of frogs. Callus forms above the wounded areas formed by compression.

Maintain attribution Tht Goog Xt "watermark" you see on each file is essential for in forming people about this project and helping them find additional materials through Google Book Search. Keep it legal Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Exobasidium rhododendri on Rhododendron^ Europe, America. Non-sexual reproductions is mainly by means of unicellular conidiospores which are discharged forcibly from the ends of tubular conidiophores. Large hailstones sometimes produce bruises on the bark of young trees, as also the bombs shot out of vol- canoes.

Farmers* Institutes with which he has had three years* experience as a lecturer in Pennsylvania. Reginald Bu Uer of the University of Manitoba gave permission to use five illustrations in his book, * * Researches on Fungi. CHAPTER XIX.— Rust Fungi 187 General Structure; Forms; Life Cycles; Cytology; Phylogeny; Endophyl- laceae; Coleosporiaceae; Pucciniaceae; Bibliography of Rusts; Auriculariaceaej Tremellaceae (Trembling Fungi). — Symptoms of Disease (Symptomatology) 341 Symptoms of Disease; Discolorations; Shot-holes; Wilting; Necrosis, Dwarfing; Hypertrophy; Replacement; Mummification; Alteration of Position; Destruction of Organs; Excrescences and Midfor ma lions; Exudations; Rotting; Bibliography of Diseases in General. 403 General Consideration; Bibliography of Developmental Mechanice, Sug- gestions to Teachers and Students. special plant pathology CHAPTER XXXIII.— Specific Diseases of Plants 4" General Statement; Principal Publications; List of Common and Important Diseases of Economfic Plants in the United States and Canada Arranged according to Host Plants. — Detailed Account of Specific Diseases of Plants . The classification adopted in this 2 MYCOLOGY treatise is based on that of Engler and Gilg, as published in the seventh illustrated edition of "Syllabus der Pflanzenfamilien," Berlin, 191 2, and on that of Wettstein in his "Handbuch der Systematischen Botanik," Leipzig and Vienna, 191 1. Biological Bull., xxix: 87-102, August, 191 5; Zygospores and Rhizopus for Class Use. Io6 MYCOLOGY Buchanan, Estelle I)., and Buchanan, Robert E.: Household Bacteriology, 1914: 66-72. Keene, Mary L.: Cytological Studies of the Zygospores of Spordinia grandis. Kxoc KER, Alb.: Fermentation Organisms, 1903: 170-186. Swingle, Deane B.: Formation of the Spores in the Sporangia of Rhizopus nigri- cans and of Phycomyces nitens. VON Tavel, F.: Vergleichende Morphologie der Pilze, 1892: 25-40. von: Handbuch der systematischen Botanik, 1911: 160- 164. : A Preliminary Study of the Germination of the Spores of Agaricus campestris and other Basidiomycetous Fungi. The removal of twigs and branches in the ordinary operations of pruning opens up wounds, some- times of a gaping character.

The arrangement of the text has been suggested by the needs of the classroom and from an acquaintance with similar work in other colleges and universities in America. ' ' The author desires to express his thanks for the uniform courtesy of members of the firm of P. CHAPTER XX.— Fleshy and Woody Fungi 218 Cytology; Dacryomycetaceae; Exobasidiaceae; Hypochnaceae; Thele- phoraceae; Clavariaceae; Hydnaceae; Polyporaceae; Manuals. — Mushrooms and Toadstools 231 Agaricaceae; Development of Fruit Bodies; Cultivation of Mushrooms; Chemistry and Toxicology of Mushrooms; Gasteromycetes; Hymeno- gastraceae; Tylostomaceae; Lycoperdaceae; Nidulariaceae; Key to; Sclero- dermaceae; Sphaerobolaceae; Phallomycetes; Development of Carrion Fungi; Clathraceas; Phallaceas; Bibliography of Eubasidii. — Fungi Imperfecti (Deuteromycetes) 258 General Characters; Systematic Position; Sphaeropsidales; Melanconiales; Hypho mycetales. CHAPTER XXIX.— Pathologic Plant Anatomy 354 Restitution; Hypoplasia; Metaplasia. — Pathologic Plant Anatomy (Continued) 364 Hypertrophy; Excrescences; Intumescences; Callous Hypertrophy; Ty- loses; Gall Hypertrophies; H3^erplasia; Homooplasia; Heteroplasia; Callus; Conditions of Callous Formation; Wound Wood; Wound Cork. Where consistent, the classificatory sys- tems of these two books are harmonized and any departures which the student will find from the taxonomic arrangements of Engler and Wettstein have been made to simplify them by the omission of cer- tain group names, or to bring the two systems into Une with the facts as at present known. DE Bary, a.: Comparative Morphology and Biology of the Fungi and Bacteria, 1887: 144-160. and Gilg, Ernst.: Syllabus der Pflanzenfamilicn, 7th Edition, 191 2: 37-38. Lafar, Franz: Technical Mycology, II, part i: 1-30, 1903. Materiaux pour la Flore Crypto- gamique Suisse III, Fasc. Sc HROTER, J.: Mucorin^ae, Die natiirlichen Pflanzenfamilien, I, Teil i. CHAPTER XII OOSPORE-PRODUCING ALGAL FUNGI ORDER II. The ringing, girdling, or scarification of trees for various purposes, if not properly performed, opens up woimds, so do nails, or spikes driven into the tree for various purposes and the placing of electric cables and telegraph wires along our streets and roads results in the removal of tree tops.

The author hopes that the book is reasonably free from misleading 44171 VI PREFACE statements, and that it will prove useful to the teaching and student body. As the statements and views of Engler and Wettstein are generally dependable and as their classification is founded on long, experience, as systematic botanists, it will be found that with respect to the larger subdivisions of the fungi their classifications are remarkably harmonious. Vaucheria is a unicellular filamentous sparingly branched cell with a thin cell wall and multinucleate. Similarly, the structural features of the more primitive Oomycetales are like Vaucheria, but the absence of chlorophyll is distinctive. Fayod, v.: Prodrome d'une histoire naturelle des Agaricindes. Injuries due to man-created environment may be of a thousand and one kinds too numerous for even a brief mention. — These may be divided into two groups, namely, animal and plant.

The exercises, which are given in detailed form are designed to acquaint the student with the methods that are used in the cultural investigation of the bacteria and fungi. The attempt has been made in the pages that follow to simplify for student use the facts of classificatory importance and while the groups are ar- ranged in lineal sequence, it should be explained that true relationship is expressed better by a family tree with main trunk, larger and smaller branches. The forma- tion of non-sexual sporangia with the formation of zoospores, or swarm spores, known as zoosporangia is a featvure of the fungi of this order. Farlow, William G.: Bibliographical Index of North American Fungi, vol. Many animals are responsible for the production of wounds and the destruction of plant parts.

Whether a book is in the public domain may vary country to country. The rusts (Uredine^) are among the most specialized of fungi in their parasitic habits, some species being confined to one or two hosts. One of the most instructive, fojms^suggesting a mode of transition from the PHYCOMYCETES to the ASCOMYCETALES, is Dipodascus. About twenty years ago the upper Mississippi Valley was visited by an unusual cold wave. Mechanic injury to the plant usually takes the form of wounds, which may be divided into natural and artificial.

Public domain books are our gateways to the past, representing a wealth of history, culture and knowledge that's often difficult to discover. They ascend with their host plants above the snow line on high moun- tains and toward the poles wherever flowering plants and ferns grow. Ileodictyon cibarium, Australia, New Zealand, South America. Its sexual organs are strikingly like those of certain Muco RACE-ffi or Peronosporace^ in their young stages. The frost penetrated to great depths and the cold was so intense that the tree roots were actually frozen in the soil.^ The formation of ice fringes upon plants has been investigated exhaustively by Coblentz,^ with the dittany, Cunila mariana. Natural wounds are those which are produced on plants hving in a state of nature, or in a cultivated state in which other natural agents are concerned in their production, man's activity not being considered.

Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of any specific book is allowed. — Slime Moulds (Myxomycetes) 7 CHAPTER III.— The Bacteria in General 21 Name; Size; Locomotion; Cell Division and Reproduction; Photogens; Chromogens; Thermogens; Aerobism and Anaerobism. — Classification of Bacteria 28 According to Nutrition; Prototrophic Bacteria; Metatrophic Bacteria; Paratrophic Bacteria; Systematic Account of the Bacteria; Bibliography. CHAPTER Vm.— Ecology of Fungi 69 Saprophytes and Parasites; Sclerotia; Galls; Habitats; Xerophytism; Lichen Fungi. — Fossil Fungi and Geographic Distribution 82 Fossil Fungi; Geographic Distribution; Habitats of Lichens; Distribution of Chestnut Blight; Laboulbeniaceae; Family Clathraceae. — ^Li ST OF Keys to Fleshy Fungi and Selected Keys of Fleshy Fungi 729 APPENDIX XI.— Key to Ao ARi CACEi E 732 Index 753 PART I MYCOLOGY CHAPTER I GENERAL STATEMENT AND CLASSIFICATION The lower plant organisms which concern the mycologist, or the student of the fungi, may be considered in a general sense, or in a narrow way. The zygospores formed in conjugation are spheric, while the azygospores formed on the mycelium without copulation are similar to the zygospores in struc- ture and appearance. 34.— Fly cholera fungus {Empttsa musca), t, Ply enveloped in mycelium; a, fungus between hairs of the fly; 3, conidiophores and conidiospores; 4, germina- tion of spores; 5. Annales des Science naturelles, vi ser., I: 18, 1883; • Nouvelles observations sur les zygospores des Mucorindes, do., I: 19, 1884. : On the Development of the Fructification of Armillaria mucida Schrad. Wounds are also formed by the teeth and horns of various mammals.

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It is hoped that the book and the suggestions, as to teaching which it contains, will appeal to those responsible for similar courses. Shear furnished illustrations for reproduction in the text. CHAPTER XXI.— Galls 384 Kinds of Galls; Cataplasms; Histology of Cataplasms; Hi^ology of Galls; Cecidial Tissue Forms; Bibliography of Galls. The author has not hesitated to make changes, where from his experience as a teacher, he has found it best to make such alterations, especially where, for example, Wettstein uses Ordnung and Engler Reihe for the same classificatory group, and where in American usage order and family are used. OOMYCETALES The fungi of this order were derived probably from some ancestor, or ancestors, which through the loss of chlorophyll became dependent on extraneous supplies of organic food. The habit of cutting initial letters and monograms in smooth-barked trees, .

The keys are given with the anticipation that they will prove useful to the student and teacher who desire exercises in the classification of the fungi: The illustrations have been chosen with care, and credit is given in all cases for those borrowed from other books and monographs. Then, too, the author has found it convenient to replace the name of a family, or order, as given by Engler for one used by Wettstein, or some other author, where such replacement is recommended by American usage, or where etymolog- ically the name is more suggestive of the character of the group, and, therefore, best for the use of students who do not expect to follow out the intricacies of any system of classification. If we look for such an ancestral form among the algae, we find that it must have been related to Vou- cheria, if not identic with that filamentous siphonaceous green alga with reproductive organs, as oogonia and antheridia. such as the beech, or the removal of sheets of birch bark, opens up wounds of vari- ous menace to the health of the tree.

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