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Short presentations on a topic of interest with appropriate pictures or slides add to this mental image.Start students off by making them aware of the influence of various foreign cultures in this country.Language Learning Journal, 2, 53-57.) 1- Language acquisition does not follow a universal sequence, but differs across cultures; 2- The process of becoming a competent member of society is realized through exchanges of language in particular social situations; 3- Every society orchestrates the ways in which children participate in particular situations, and this, in turn, affects the form, the function and the content of children's utterances; 4- Caregivers' primary concern is not with grammatical input, but with the transmission of sociocultural knowledge; 5- The native learner, in addition to language, acquires also the paralinguistic patterns and the kinesics of his or her culture. 55) A) The Frankenstein Approach: A taco from here, a flamenco dancer from here, a Gacho from here, a bullfight from there B) The 4-F approach: Folk dances, festivals, fairs and food C) Tour Guide Approach: Monuments, rivers, cities, etc.D) By-The-Way Approach: Sporadic lectures or bits of behavior selected 1) Nature of content -- getting information - what is the capital of the US? 2) Learning objectives -- demonstrate a mastery of the information.
Dewey (1897) said that "It is true that language is a logical instrument, but it is fundamentally and primarily a social instrument." If language is "primarily a social instrument," how can it be divorced from the society that uses it? 4)Jay (1968) argued that "Bilingualism is not in itself the answer to cultural understanding among people...
Culture and communication are inseparable because culture not only dictates who talks to whom, about what, and how the communication proceeds, it also helps to determine how people encode messages, the meanings they have for messages, and the conditions and circumstances under which various messages may or may not be sent, noticed, or interpreted... (Samovar, Porter, & Jain, 1981) "Culture is the "glue" that binds a group of people together." (Douglas-Brown- 1994) "Culture is an elusive construct that shifts constantly over time and according to who is perceiving and interpreting it." (Linda Harklau- 1999) "Culture" is a broad concept that embraces all aspects of human life. Of its several meanings, two are of major importance to teachers (according to Brooks, 1975*): We should realize that knowing the language, as well as the patterns of everyday life, is a prerequisite to appreciating the fine arts and literature, therefore we need a balanced perspective of culture when designing curricula.
Culture shapes our thoughts and actions, and often does so with a heavy hand" (Seelye- 1984-1993).
the way they do because they are using options society allows for satisfying basic physical and psychological needs, and that cultural patterns are interrelated and tend mutually to support need satisfaction. Then, the objectives that are to be achieved in cross-cultural understanding involve Processes rather than Facts.
1) React appropriately in a social situation 2) Describe a pattern in the culture 3) Recognize a pattern when it is illustrated 4) Explain a pattern 5) Predict how a pattern is likely to apply in a given situation 6) Describe or manifest an attitude important for making oneself acceptable in the foreign society 7) Evaluate the form of a statement concerning a culture pattern 8) Describe/demonstrate defensible methods of analyzing a socio-cultural whole 9) Identify basic human purposes that make significant the understanding that is being taught Various versions of these steps have been made, with more or less the same goals and expectations for students. A "facts only" approach to culture for which the only goal is to amass bits of information is ineffective.
2) Learning objectives: demonstrate an ability -- a fluency, an expertise, confidence, ease.