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If it burns the finger, then it is fire and if it makes my hand wet, then it is really water. There may be a controversy as regards the exact point where this process terminates.
According lo the Na1)'ayika, this process ends with observation of an individual material ob jcet, i.e., with determinate (sal'j'k.alpaka) perception, while for the buddhists, it ends with indcrminatc (nirn'kalpaka) perception, which is "free from all constructions.
Dy contrast, perception not 1 associated with conceptual construction and verbalization, is authentic because it is a direct intuition of what is real in itself.
It is Jokoltara-supernatural and gives us knowledge of transcendentally real (pfiramiirlhika-sal). Uttara RELATION BETWEEN THE Jp JHUS AND THE ~TUS IN THE ~GVEDA G. DAVANE Introduction : The Rbhus arc minor divinities, who have been invoked in 11 hymns (viz.
This is the second important doctrine of the Duddhists that there arc no real universals (siimfinya) either as existing independently of particulars or as qualifying particulars.
Dh:mnakirti argues for the unreality of the universals by applying the criterion of arthakn) 1 iilc:ir1/ The cowncss (Go-samiinya or Golva) docs not give milk but it is the individual cow (Go-s1 1 alak$::1.1j:1) that gives milk.
The most important consequence of the view for our purposes is that there cannot be a universal which is one, eternal, common to and existing or subsisting in many particulars as accepted by the Nm) 1 iiy1'and other realists.
Our aim is not lo assess the validity of the 13uddhist denial of universals and the arguments adduced in support of that view but to understand the Duddhist thesis that the unique particular (sl'a-lak,'QRARY RELEVANCE 5 is the "association of the object of cognition with name and class-terms, ctc.'' 9 Normally, cognitions arc associated with five types of words : proper names (niima), class-terms ljiiti), quality-names or adjectives (gw;w), action-words or verbs (kriyii} and thing-names or substance (dral'ya).
10 When I sec an object, a unique particular, I attribute to it a proper name, say, Kapila; a class-term, a cow; a quality-word, white; an activity, ruminating and a substance-word, horned.
This association of five types of words with my cognition of the object results into the description of the object in five sentences : It is Kapila; it is a cow; it is white; it is ruminating and it has horns.
These labels, these words are not what arc given in the cognition but belong to imaginative construction and verbalization.